Chao Lung Suo kaa Faa— The Founder of Assamese Society ණ chao Numal Gogoi, Tinisukia

History of mediaeval Assam is the history of the Ahom kingdom founded by Chao Lung Suo kaa Faa in the year 1228 A.D. whose descendants ruled over this land for long six hundreds years. Modern historians starting Kashinath Tamuli Phukan, have been doing much niustice in portraying the true character of this founder monarch of the dynasty of Ahom kimgs in Assam. This is due to the fact that none of these historian had the least knowledge of the Tai Ahom language.
Golap Chandra Boruah's Ahom buranji got through the press in 1930. This was translated into English and edited by him with the help of five deodhai scholars, namely, Molaigharia Barua, Pancharam Phukan, Lipeswar Barua, Bongali Mohari Deodhai Phukan and Godai Bantungia Barua. This buranji has thrown much light on hitherto unexplored aspects of Sua kaa Faa's greatness.
According to this Ahom buranji Suo kaa Faa's father was Chao Chang Nyau who married Nang Blok kham Seng, the sister of Pa Meo Pung. Pa Meo Pung had no children upto his ripe old age. So his nephew Suo Kaa Faa was brouhgt up at his capital and nominated future king of Mong Mao Lung. Suo kaa Faa spent 18 years of his boyhood in the kingdom of his matermal uncle when a son named Suo khan Faa was born. At the death of Pa meo pung Suokhan faa succeeded to the throne of Mao Lung. Having thus lossing hope, Suo kaa Faa returned to Mung Kha Mung ju and then to his father's kingdom Mong ri Mung ram. He said to himself, " I must go to the West where birds take rest and found a kingdom there and enjoy. He had a consultation with Khun Ba, Khun Fong, Khun Ring, khun Suong and khun Phukin about his plane. He searched for and found the Sum Phra Rung Seng Mong, the statuette of the royal tutelary god from his father's kingdom and left for Assam.
He took three thousand copper vessals for cooking, each vessal could hold the provisions for three men. He brought two elephants one male and other female. Phong pem was his elephant driver. He had three hundred horses whose eyes were covered. The persons who accompanied with him were Khun Kong, Khun Jong, Kong Khu Mong, Kong Ngon, Thou Khun Lung, Thou Mong Mangkham, Thoumong Mo sam Mo Sai, Thou Keobong, Thou Mong Suo Khun, Khunlung Rupal, together with the families of Khunlak, Khun Tong, kongkhu, Kong Sam, Thou Mosam, Thou Mong Mosai.
On his way, Suo kaa Faa had to fight with the local population and street clear his way to Mong Dun Sun Kham. He crossed the Nam Kiew ( irrawati) river and arrived at Mong kong. Then crossing the mountain passed reached Khamjang, passed by the lake Nonggyang and arrived at Doi Kou Rong. At last he stopped at Namruk. It took him 13 years to reach Mong Dun Sun kham from Moung Ri Mong Ram.
After entering Mong Dun Sun Khum he moved along the dowmstream of Burhidihing and the Brahmputra and uostream of Dikhow halting at the places Namruk, Ti pam, Che khru, Habung, Dilihmukh, Songtok, Simaluguri and Timak. At last he arrived at Che Tam Doi after twenty one year. He reigned his kingdom for forty one years.
Surprisingly enough, Assam buranji of Haliram Dhekial Phukan, 1829, Assam Buranji puthi of Kashinath Tamuli phukan, 1844 , H.C. Goswami edited purani Assam Buranji 1922, Assam Buranji of Harakanta Barua 1930 and other buranjis written in Assamese and published by Deptt. Of Historycal and Antiquarin Studies, attempted to put forward a quite opposite picture of this founder monarch of Assam. Consequently, no historian has uptill now, been able to assess the actual greatness of Suo kaa Faa, the father of Assamese natation.
The errorneous views held by these buranjis are as follows:—
1. The number of followers who accompanied Suo kaa Faa were 1080 only.
2. Neither Suo kaa Faa nor his followers brought their children and wife.
3. Suo kaa Faa left Mung Mao hung as a consequence of his quarrel with his cousin Suo khan Faa ,the son of his maternal uncle.
4. He was advised by his maternal grandmother to quite Maolung.
5. He stole away the Chum Phra rung seng moung from Sukhan.
5. In Mung Dun Sun kham, Suo kaa Faa's men got mixed with Borahi and Moran or Mattak through motrimonial relations, himself marring the daughters of Thami Thuma and Bodossa, the cheiftains of respectively of the Borahi and Moran.
However these views are not supportted by the Ahom buranjis. Buranjis are the true records of Ahom administration. They were composed and preserved by the Mo ru mo seng ,the priestly clans who acompanied Suo kaa Faa. Where as the Assamese Buranjis were composed by non Tai historians toward the end of Ahom rule on during British period. So they are to be considered as secondary sources.
The Ahom Buranji clearly states that Suo Kaa Faa, the nominated King of Mao Lung left that kingdom only when his maternal uncle Pa meo pung was blessed with a son at his ripe old age. It is from Mung Kgu Mung Yao, the kingdom of his father Chao Chang Nyau that Suo Kaa Faa started his journey westward to Mung Dun Sun kham. The decision was his own, there is no place for the advice of his maternal grand mother.
" Man ko Peon Khun bao sao dai ti nan cham hung ma ka tau cham ma Mung dun sun kham -- Chao Lung Suo kaa faa wa cham kao chao tak pai kin mung pa kam bao tuk nuk non nam wa nai-- ma ka kun po kao chao Luk mung kha mung ya ma cham man khai au seng " ( Ahom Buanji p. 44) . He ( Suo ka Faa) lost his support there descended downward and came to Mung Dun Sun Kham, He said himself ' I must go towards west where the birds take rest and established a kingdom of my own and enjoy. He, therefore came from Mung kha Mung yu to his father's kingdom( Mung Ri mung ram) and searched out the seng.
Thus Suo Kaa Faa is honourably acquitted of the charge either of quarrel with his cousin or the theft of chum seng.
There is ample evidence of women and children accompanying Suo Kaa Faa. The Ahom Buranji stated clearly that at least seven families of khun lak, khun tong, kong khu, king sam, thou mo sam, thou mung mo sai and phong pem together with own family and children who came to Mung Dun Sun Kham. In the Buranji two words —reun ( clan or family) and phu ( a house hold) are applyed in connection with his followers which numbered 9000.
Mi tang sam ring mo tong deng. Mo khao cham kin le sam kun.
" There were three thousan coper pots for cooking and three man could eat therice from onr vessal. "
Thus we get a clear picture of the number of followers together with their families amd children who migrated to Mung Dun Sun Kham . Suo Kaa Faa left his country for good with a view to founding a new kingdom. Moreover the Tai people of south east Asia are progenitors of the irrigetted wet rice cultivation. It took him 13 years to crooss the Nam kin ( irawati) the patkai Hills, kham Jang and Nagahills and another 20 years from Namruk to Che Tam Doi( charaideo) , Naturaly it follows that Suo Kaa Faa migrated Mung Dun Sun Kham bag and baggage, with his wives and children, together with a settled tribal society who sustained their livelihood with the produce of cultivated Wet rice, all through the year between 1215 to 1248 A.D. ie from the date of his exodus to the settlemen at Che Tam Doi in Mung Dun sun kham halting at difference places.
The Ahom Buranji mentions of the khang ( Nagas) , Tiura or Diura ( Deories) and Dimasa kacharies. It is only the Assamese Chronicles starting with Kashinath Tamuli Phukan that words Khang, Diura, and Dimasa have been translated as Borahi, Chutia and kachari. Another tribe Phu khou have been translated as Moran and Mattak. Thus the Hindu idea that the Tai people got mixed with the local population from the very day of Suo Kaa Faa advent to Assam without foundation .